September 28, 2022

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been found to be highly infectious resulting in the need for community-based quarantines that were implemented in 2020 and 2021. Individuals considered to be spreaders of active viral particles (VPs) must have an intact viral envelope with accessible receptor binding domains (RBDs) of the spike (S) proteins that can bind to an angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to mediate cell entry of virions and their replication (1).

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